Traumatology and Orthopaedics

What does Traumatology and Orthopaedics studies?

Traumatology is a branch of medicine that studies injuries and diseases connected with them, develops methods for the treatment and prevention of injuries.

Orthopedics is the branch of medicine that deals with prevention, diagnostics, treatment of deformities and functional disorders of the locomotor apparatus (bones and muscles). They are caused by congenital defects or arise because of injury or disease.

Orthopaedics is traditionally connected with Traumatology – a branch of medicine, that studies damages of the locomotor apparatus (bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons). Prosthesis it is complex medical engineering discipline, that deals with manufacture and use of prosthetic and orthotic devices (braces, bands, machines, special footwears and insoles). It comprises into Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Prosthetic and orthotic devices are used for restoration of lost forms and functions of the musculoskeletal system.

Orthopaedics is an important part of Sports Medicine that studies changes in the body during trainings. Knowledge in the field of sports and physical culture is simply necessary for the modern orthopedist. It is hard to imagine Orthopedics without a science called Мedical Rehabilitation or Podiatry – а branch of medicine that studies structure and treatment of various feet diseases.

Soft tissue injuries

Soft tissue injuries are divided into 2 types: closed and open. Closed injuries, in particular, of soft tissue and bone differ from open (wounds) because they are not accompanied by wounds and microbial contamination of tissues. Closed injuries include bruises, concussion, compression of soft tissues, aborticulation, broken bones and damaged organs, etc.

Mar – closed mechanical soft tissues damage , that cases no harm to skin (occurs often). The degree of injury depends on the size and circuit of the object that caused the injury, as well as form, force of the blow and tissue resistance. Muscles can be easily injured in tension. The weakest, in this respect, is the subcutaneous tissues, which is full of blood vessels and nerves. Every injury is usually accompanied with tearing of the blood vessels, which causes interstitial hemorrhage.

Strain. The term “stretching” does not match its meaning, because all soft tissues have elastic properties and tensile strength, those are their normal functions (e.g. strain of ligament). While hyperextension micro-tears in tissues appear. So, the gist of such injury is a strain still.

During strains often damage of the ligamentos apparatus of the joints appear. This is caused by a sudden curt movement in the joint (flexion with rotation of the fixed feet, excessive flexion or extension). Strain is typical for athletes in most sports. Ankle, knee, wrist joints most often can be affected.

In the case of a strain mechanism of damage is different, then with mar, but they have similar clinical picture: local pain and mild bleeding with dysfunction of the limbs, excessive movement in the joints. Anamnesis (the elucidation of the mechanism of injury) together with additional methods of examination (ultrasound, MRI, etc.) will help to set a diagnosis.

Treatment of fractures

In the treatment of fractures we should follow two principles: need to put together debris properly (if they exist) and fix them for time of fusion.

For fixing of uncomplicated fractures solid (gypsum or plastic) bands are used. Term for imposition of such bandages is immobilization of the joints above and below the fracture, which creates optimal conditions for healing, but requires mandatory rehabilitation treatment after removal of fixation.

One of the modern trends in the world of Traumatology and Orthopedics is the application of methods of surgical fixation of fragments by various metal constructions. Often, this method does not involve immobilization of the joints. So, advantage is that it does not hinder the mobility of the affected limb. And it gives opportunity for early and rapid recovery, reducing disability level and rapid social adaptation of the person injured.